Mary Queen of Scots and James VI Rule as the Clan Gordon and the Clan Hay Dominate the Northeast of Scotland (1543 AD to 1603 AD)

•     September 9, 1543 AD        The nine month old infant, Mary, was crowned Queen of the Scots (4-page 319)

•     February 12, 1545 AD        Ancrum Moor: Henry VIII’s army under Sir Ralph Evers was defeated by the Scots (2-page 99-103)

•     1551 AD        William Leask appears in a cognition, dated 1551 regarding the marches between the lands of Nether Ardlethin, belonging to Alexander Chalmers of Balnacraig, Arthur Forbes, and Alexander Hay, portioners thereof, and the Ald mil of Essilmonth, belonging to Thomas Cheyne, fiar of Esselmont, parish of Ellon, co Aberdeen. (bd)

•     1557 AD        The English fleet lands at Kirkwell. The town is bombarded and partly burned. Local defenses drive the English off (10-page 154)

•     1559 AD        Adam Bothwell was appoint was appointed Bishop of Orkney in 1559. He was the last Vatican appointed Bishop of Orkney. As he was the only bishop who stood in apostolic succession from pre-reformation to post-reformation church, he was invited to crown the infant King James VI. It is to Adam Bothwell’s credit that the Cathedral did not share the fate of churches and abbeys in mainland Scotland but survived intact. Unfortunately, he was surrounded by greedy clergy and predatory relatives. Within a short time, many of the old farms were taken over by incomers, tradesmen had settled in Kirkwell and Scottish names had spread throughout the islands. Local customs and speech appear to have been adopted by the newcomers (11-page 28)

•     October 28, 1562 AD        Corricchie: George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was defeated by the supporters of Mary, Queen of Scotts. (1-page 106-117)

•     1564 AD        Lord Robert Stewart (1533-1593), King James V’s illegitimate brother receives the crown lands from his sister, Mary Queen of Scots. He soon became Sheriff Principal in the Islands. He acquired almost absolute power in the Islands. (11-page 28) Under the Stewart Earls, life for ordinary farmers and merchants became difficult, lands were frequently appropriated and hurdles and restrictions caused them problems. Trade could only occur under Stewart licenses, forced labor was introduced and all ferry traffic was under strict control (10-page 152-53)

•     June 19, 1566 AD        Charles James, the future James VI, is born to Mary, Queen of the Scots and her husband Henry Stewart, lord Darnley. (4-page 383)

•     December 17, 1566 AD        Charles James, the future James VI, is baptized as a Catholic in a lavish ceremony in Sterling Castle. (4-page 383)

•     July 24, 1567 AD        Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate under a threat of death. (4-page 365)

•     July 29, 1567 AD        James VI is crowned as an 13 month old infant King after his mother, Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate in a austere Protestant ceremony. (4-page 382)

•     1567 AD        Incoming families such as the Balfours and the Belldendens dethrone the Sinclair Family as leaders of Orkney society. Despite the fact that the old Norse laws were ratified by the Scottish Parliament under Mary Queen of Scots, and that promises were made to maintain the independence of the laws of Orkney, Scots law and land tenure gradually crept in. Bishop Boswell was suspended for some time and never returned to the Islands. (11-page 28)

•     October 10, 1571 AD        (A) Tillyangus: The Gordons led, by Adam Gordon defeated the Forbes, who were led by black Arthur’ (1-page 119-125)

•     November 20, 1571 AD        (A) Craibstane: The Gordons, led by Adam Gordon defeated the Forbes. (1-page 126-127)

•     September 2, 1574        William Lesk of that Ilk signed as one of the ‘Barons of the North and others’ the oath of allegiance to King James VI. (be)

•     September 10, 1574 AD       Pinkie Brook (near the Esk): The English under Somerset defeated the Scots. (2-page 105-111)

•     1581 AD        Lord Robert Stewart, despite having been arrested earlier for suspicion of treason in his negotiations and dealings with the King of Denmark, charms King James VI so much that in 1581 he was made ‘Earl of Orkney, Lord of Shetland, and Knight of Birsay.’ (11-page 28)

•     1584 AD        The year is described by Orkney Historian J Storer Clouston as Robert Stewart’s ‘vintage year’ of oppression in the islands, when land was confiscated on the flimsiest of pretexts. (11-page 29)

•     February 8, 1587 AD        Mary, Queen of the Scots is executed by Elizabeth of England. (4-page 380)

•     1589 AD        The Catholic Earls (Errol & Huntly) joined in rebellion, marched towards Edinburgh but the rebellion petered out. King James led an army north to Aberdeen to take punitive action. At first Huntly pondered resistence, but disbanded his forces at Brig o’ Dee and submitted to King James peacefully. (1-page 128-129)

•     February, 1592 AD        The Earl of Huntley’s men attacked Donibristle House on the Forth and murder James Stewart, The earl of Moray. (1-page 129)

•     1593 AD        Earl Patrick Stewart (1569-1615), succeeds his father as Earl of Orkney. He earned the name ‘Black Patie’ as he seems to have lacked his fathers ability to charm himself out of trouble. (11-page 29)

•     1594 AD        The Earl of Erroll joined in the Earl of Huntley’s rebellion against the King, James VI. He was later pardoned. (bf)

•     October 3, 1594 AD        Glenlivet: The Earl of Huntley, George Gordon, in rebellion against King James, defeats the Earl of Argyll (Campbell). (1-page 128-137)

•     1594 AD        Because the Earl of Erroll (George Hay) joined in the Earl of Huntley’s (George Gordon) in rebellion against the King, King James VI destroyed Erroll’s Slains Castle and Huntley’s Castle at Strathbogie. (1-page 135)

•     1595 AD        In 1595 “for good service of the said Wil L. [sic] younger, the said lands he (the king) gave to him again after the outcasting of the said Franc.” (Earl of Erroll) preserving the Leask lands. (bg)

•     1596 AD        Walter Leisk of that ilk, with a legitimate son James, is named in the ecclesiastical records as having studied at Marischal College in Aberdeen. (bh)

•     March 24, 1603 Elizabeth I of England dies. (4-Page 382)

•     July 25, 1603 AD        James VI of Scotland is crowned as James I of England uniting the crowns of England and Scotland. (4-page 400)