Scotland Emerges (900 AD to 1014 AD)

•     900 AD          Consantine II becomes king and rules ‘Scotland’ until 943 AD.1

•     902-3 AD      In the third year of Constantine son of Aed, the Norse plundered
Dunkeld and all Albania.2

•     903-04 AD          The Norse were slaughtered in Strathearn. The Irish Annals record that ‘Ivor O’Ivor’ was slain by the men of Fortren, with great slaughter around him. The battle is not mentioned in the Brechin Chronicle nor the Annals of Ulster. It is recorded in some detail under the year 909 AD in the Irish Annals transcribed by Duald MacFirbis.3

•     910 AD          Einar’s sons Arnkell and Erlend rule Orkney jointly until they are
killed in battle in England (941 AD).4 They are killed with Eric Bloodax in the battle5 of Stainsmore, Yorkshire (Saxon victory over the Norse in 954 AD.6

•     934 AD          Athelstan -King of Wessex, invaded Scotland, reaching as far as Dunnotar. He takes the son Constantines, King of Scotland, as a hostage.7

•     937 AD          The Scots, and an army of Irish and Northumberland Norsemen under Olaf Gothfrithsson, and Britons led by Owen of Strathclyde, marched south. They are defeated by Athelstan at Brunanburg. The location of this battle has been sited at Burnswark or Birrenswark in Dumfriesshire. Athelstan makes Erick Bloodax Earl of Northumbria.8

•     937 AD          Constantine II and his allies are defeated at Brunanburh.9

•     943 AD          Constantine II resigns and Malcolm I becomes King of Scotland.10

•     945 AD          Edmund-King of Wessex, successor to Athelstan, invaded Cumbria and granted it to Malcolm.11

•     946 AD          Edmund is assassinated.12

•     948 AD          Malcolm plundered the English as far as the Tees, taking men and cattle.13

•     950 AD          Malcolm captured Northumberland, but the men of Moray took the opportunity to rise in rebellion.14

•     950 AD          Thorfin becomes sole ruler (950-53) after a period of disputed succession.15

•     954 AD          Battle of Stainmore, Yorkshire (Saxons defeat Norse).16 Orkneymen are reported to have died in this battle along with Eric Bloodaxe.17

•     954 AD          King Malcolm I is slain at Fodresart (Near Stonehaven, probably at Fetteresso or Fordoun) Indulf , son of Constantine II becomes King.18

•     954-962 AD          Sometime between 954 AD and 962 AD a party of Vikings from Orkney led by the sons of King Eric Blood-Axe raided the Buchan coast but were defeated by the natives. The exact site of the battle is unknown but one account would suggested that it was on the slopes of Aldie Hill at Cruden.1920

•     962 AD          Battle of the Bauds, Cullen Bay-near Moray21 Moray men defeat the Danes. (also dated as 961)22

•     966 AD          King Dubh is slain at Forres in Moray.23 The battle is also dated as 967.24

•     968 AD          Thorfin is succeeded by his sons Arnfinn, Havard Ljot, and Holdve.25 Arnfinn, Havard and Ljot are each married to Ragnhild, daughter of Eric Bloodax. She intrigues to get each of them killed in turn.26

•     970 to 974 AD (O)          Ljot and Skuli were the 11th & 12th Earls of Orkney. Skuli had his occupancy of Cathiness and Sutherland ratified by the Scottish King, but Skuli was eventually killed in the battle of Loth (a corruption of Ljot) in Sutherland.27

•     974-980          Holdver rules as Earl of Orkney.28

•     980 AD          Sigurd II ‘the stout’ (980-1014), Earl of Orkney, Holdver’s son, extends Norway’s influence in Scotland as far south as the river Tay. Thorfinn, a son, had a Scottish princess for a mother.29

•     995 AD          Sigrid II is forced to convert to Christianity by Olaf Trygvesson.30 Though there were Christian communities at this time in the Orkneys and Shetland as evidenced by the names ‘Papey’ given by the Norse to several islands, Christianity seems to have waned under the early Norsemen. It is likely that Sigrid’s mother and wife were already Christians.31

•     988 AD          Svein Forkbeard becomes King of Denmark, replacing Harold Bluetooth. He rules until 1014 AD. (Sueno?)32

•     995 AD          Kenneth II is murdered at Fettercairn.33

•     1004 AD         Gamrie (Gardenstown) was attacked by a party of Norsemen who were in search of provisions for their fleet which was storm-bound. These raiders were defeated and the skulls of three of their leaders was built into the walls of a church that was then under construction.34

•     1005 AD         Malcolm II (1005-34) of Scotland begins his reign.35

•     1005 AD         The Vikings launch another raid. Though Vikings had raided during the reign of Kenneth, and Sigrud II had raided as far south as the Tay, Malcolm II had no warning of this Viking invasion and therefore their landing was unopposed. “It was some days before the Scottish soldier appeared, and meanwhile Vikings did their pleasure on the helpless country. They spread themselves over the rich Province of Moray, slaughtering in city and hamlet, making room with their merciless swords for their own wives and children who were to follow them across the ocean” The initial attempts by Malcolm II to drive them out were unsuccessful, and as a result their influence and control spread.36

•     1005 AD         Murtlach: The bloody day of Murtlach (Mortlatch also placed in 1010) brought a change in the outlook, although it did not entirely dispel the danger that hung over the country. King Malcolm II, who had retreated into Mar, worked night and day to save the monarchy. His efforts were rewarded with a more numerous and better disciplined host than earlier. The men of Angus and Mearns, the warlike citizens of Aberdeen and other towns, the yeomen of Fife, rallied to the standard of their king at his great crisis, burning to do battle against the invader of their homes. The two hosts joined battle at Murtlach. With the death of Kenneth, thane of the Isles, Grim, thane of Strathen, and Dunbar, thane of Lothan, the Scots fell back. They were not beaten but retreated to stronger ground. There they defeated the Vikings.37

•     1008 AD          2nd Battle at Forres38 Malcolm II defeated by the Norse.39

•     1009-1012 AD          Danish raids continue. Kinloss & Nairn raided in 1009.40

•     1010 AD          Malcolm II defeats a Norse Army at Dufftown, securing his northern border. Malcolm’s daughter Bethoc marries Sigurd the Stout, Earl of Orkney.41

•     1012 AD          Battle of Cruden Bay: A large force of Danes under the command of Canute, later King Canute, landed at Cruden in about 1012 AD where he was defeated42 by an army lead by King Malcolm II. The peace treaty which was made following this battle had the following terms:43 The Vikings had to evacuate the Northeast of Scotland.44
The Danes as well as the Scots were to receive a decent and honorable burial. (It is said the name Cruden derives from Chroch Dain, Croja Danorum, Croya Dain or Crushain which means slaughter of the Danes.45 The Danes are reputed to have had a castle one mile to the west of Slains in a area called Ardendraught prior to the battle.46

•     1014 AD          Earl Sigrid (Sigrid II) Hlodvisson (the Stout) whose mother was an Irish princess, gathered a force from as far a field as Brittany, the Ilse of man, and Kintire, Argile and the Western Isles, to join with Orcadians and Shetlanders in an alliance with Irish Norsemen under King Sitric of Dublin. Their goal was to fight in Ireland to reduce the power of the Irish King Brian Boru who was extending his influence into Norse territories. Sigrud died in the resulting significant battle of Clontarf with his raven banner wraped around him.4748

•     February 3, 1014 AD          Swein, king of Denmark ended his days on Candlemas, February 3, and the fleet all chose Cnute as King. He becomes king of England in 1016 AD and King of Denmark in 1018 AD on the death of his brother.49

•     1014 AD          Harald, brother of Cnute, becomes King of Denmark on the death of Svein Forkbeard.50 He rules until 1018 AD.51


  1. 900 AD-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 693. 

  2. 902-3 AD-The Age of the Picts, W. A. Cummins, 1995, reprinted by Barnes & Noble Books, 1998, page 142. 

  3. 902-3 AD-The Age of the Picts, W. A. Cummins, 1995, reprinted by Barnes & Noble Books, 1998, page 142. 

  4. 910 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  5. 910 AD-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. 

  6. 910 AD-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. 

  7. 934 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 35. 

  8. 934 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 35. 

  9. 937 AD-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 694. 

  10. 934 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 35. 

  11. 945 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, pages 35-36. 

  12. 946 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 36. 

  13. 948 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 36. 

  14. 950 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 36. 

  15. 950 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01 

  16. 954 AD-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. 

  17. 954 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 36. 

  18. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, page 35-36. A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, pages 35-36. 

  19. 954-962 AD-Vikings in the North-East of Scotland, Bob Watt, http://Viking.no/e/info-sheets/Scotland/ne-scotl.htm. 

  20. 954-962 AD-Some Dates in the History of Cruden, http://www.danielsd.demon.co.uk.cruden.htm. 

  21. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, page 37. 

  22. 962 AD-Battles Fought in England, Scotland and Wales, compiled by Peter R. Hamilton-Leggett (www.argonet.co.uk/users/hamleg/bat.html-12/4/01). 

  23. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, page 37. 

  24. 962 AD-Battles Fought in England, Scotland and Wales, compiled by Peter R. Hamilton-Leggett, www.argonet.co.uk/users/hamleg/bat.html,12/4/01. 

  25. 968 AD-A Timeline of Early Orcadian History, www.orkneyjar.com/history/timeline.htm, 6/18/01. 

  26. 968 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  27. 970-974 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  28. 974-980 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  29. 980 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  30. 968 AD-A Timeline of Early Orcadian History, www.orkneyjar.com/history/timeline.htm, 6/18/01. 

  31. 995 AD-Orkney, A Historical Guide, © Caroline Wickham Jones,1998, page 118. 

  32. 988 AD-The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Translated and collated by Anne Savage, 2000, page 9. 

  33. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, page 37. 

  34. 1004 AD-Vikings in the North-East of Scotland, Bob Watt, http://Viking.no/e/info-sheets/Scotland/ne-scotl.htm. 

  35. 1005 AD-Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  36. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, page 38. Earls of Orkney, http://clansinclairusa.org.htm, 6/18/01. 

  37. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998, pages 38-39. 

  38. 1008 AD-Battles Fought in England, Scotland and Wales, compiled by Peter R. Hamilton-Leggett, www.argonet.co.uk/users/hamleg/bat.html, 12/4/01. 

  39. 1008 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 39. 

  40. 1009-1012 AD-Battles Fought in England, Scotland and Wales, compiled by Peter R. Hamilton-Leggett (www.argonet.co.uk/users/hamleg/bat.html-12/4/01). 

  41. 1010 AD-A Wee Guide to MacBeth and Early Scotland, Charles Sinclair, Martin Coventry, 1999, page 39. 

  42. 1012 AD-A Parish History-Saint Mary-on-the-Rock, http://freespace.virgin.net/gerald.stranraer-mull/parish/history.htm. 

  43. 954 AD-Grampian Battlefields (The Historic Battles of Northeast Scotland from 84 AD to 1745), Peter Marren, Mercat Press, 1993, 1998. 

  44. 1012 AD-Famous Scottish Battles, by Philip Warner, Barnes & Noble Books, 1975, 1996.) During the lifetime of King Malcolm and King Sueno of Denmark neither country would wage war on the other, ((1012 AD-Battles Fought in England, Scotland and Wales, compiled by Peter R. Hamilton-Leggett (www.argonet.co.uk/users/hamleg/bat.html-12/4/01). 

  45. 1012 AD-Vikings in the North-East of Scotland, Bob Watt, http://Viking.no/e/info-sheets/Scotland/ne-scotl.htm. Some Dates in the History of Cruden, http://www.danielsd.demon.co.uk.cruden.htm. 

  46. 1012 AD-Some Dates in the History of Cruden, http://www.danielsd.demon.co.uk.cruden.htm. 

  47. 995 AD-Orkney, A Historical Guide, © Caroline Wickham Jones,1998, pages 114-115. 

  48. 1014 AD-The Islands of Orkney, Liv Kjorsvik Schei, 2000, page 20. 

  49. Feb 3, 1014 AD-The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Translated and collated by Anne Savage, 2000, pages 160,162. 

  50. 1014 AD-The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Translated and collated by Anne Savage, 2000, page 9. 

  51. 1014 AD-The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Translated and collated by Anne Savage, 2000, page 162.