Author Archives: macleask

The Y-DNA Study Needs Your Help

There are many known spellings of the name Leask (Leisk, Liesk, Lisk, Lesk, Lesh, Laesk, Lask, Leysk, Laysk, and Lusk). So far we only have participants in the study who spell their name Leask, Leisk (a Shetland spelling), Lisk and Lusk (Irish). Leasks of all spellings are eligible to join the Y-DNA study.  We need to increase the numbers of participants to make the results more meaningful and the study needs to include some members of the Clan Chief’s line.  Your help is needed!

Current status of Leask Y-DNA Surname Study:

Surnames tested in the Leask Surname Y-DNA Study so far are: Leask, Lisk, Leisk, Lusk. Three distinct lines have been discovered up to this point for Clan Leask. Two of them though different are more closely related (both having the L48 SNP) and are likely to have a similar geographic origin and a common ancestor. The third line (group #3) does not have the L48 SNP and appears to have a different geographic origin. Lusk was tested at their request because oral family history for some, not all of the Lusks claimed Lusk was an Irish spelling of Leask.  Leask Group #1 and Leask Group #2 are both U106+. This haplogroup is also known as R1b-S21 (a.k.a U-106) on Eupedia. Leask Group #3 is not U-106 but is U-152. Group #3’s haplogroup is known as R1b-S28 (U152) on Eupedia.

Leask Group #1 STRs test R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48 using FTDNA terminology.  Nat Geno 2.0 tests report this group has Z28 as its terminal SNP and it is classed a Z9*.  Leask Group #2’s STRs test R1b1a2a1a1a4a; also tests R-L48 using the FTDNA terminology.  However, Nat Geno 2.0 tests report this group also has the downstream L47 SNP and has as its terminal SNP Z159.  The STR Tests can be used to measure the genetic distance between the two groups.  STR Tests of Y-DNA show significant genetic distance between groups #1 & #2.  Leask Group #3 Tests R1b1a2a1a1b4 and exhibits an even more significant genetic distance from Leask Group #1 and Leask Group #2

 The articles found on Eupedia.com are interesting.  Groups #1 & #2 are likely from Friesland or Central Jutland according to the experts on Eupedia. (See http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml#S21-U106).  According to Eupedia its presence in other parts of Europe can be attributed to the 5th- and 6th-century Germanic migrations. The Frisians and Saxons spread this haplogroup: to the British Isles, to the Franks and France, to Belgium, and through the Lombards to Austria and Northern Italy.  W. F. Skene pointed to evidence of Frisian settlements in Scotland in his article “On the Early Frisian Settlements in Scotland.”  He speculated that the Frisians left their name on the parish in Aberdeenshire known as Foveran. Because the third group is R1b1a2a1a1b4 and is R-L21+ and is not R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48 like groups #1 & #2; I conclude they are of a different geographic  origin.  Group #3 is thought to have come north from Iberia to England and Ireland (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml#L21).

 

Summary of the Study so far:

To summarize: In the Leask Surname Study there are three distinct lines discovered so far.  Two of the lines of Clan Leask are R1b1a2a1a1a4.  They are L48+ and both are U106+.  Though Groups #1 and Groups #2 are both L48, they have different terminal SNPs.  STR Tests can be used to measure the genetic distance between the two groups. The STR Tests of Y-DNA show significant genetic distance between groups #1 & #2. Leask Group #3 exhibits even more significant genetic distance from Leask Group #1 and Leask Group number 2. ISOGG currently classifies Group #3 as R1b1a2a1a1b.

Detailed Results:

  1. Group #1 tests: R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48 using FTDNA terminology;  Nat Geno 2.0 tests report this group has Z28 as its terminal SNP and it is classed a Z9*. ISOGG currently classifies Z9 as R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48; SNPS Test: L1-, L2-, L20-, L21-, L23+, L4-, L48+, L49+, M126-, M153-, M160-, M173+, M18-, M207+, M222-, M269+, M343+, M37-, M65-, M73-, P107-, P25+, P310+, P311+, P312-, P66-, SRY2627-, U106+, U152-, U198-. I am part of this branch and I therefore expect my expanded tests to continue to agree with his. So far my FTDNA tests show: R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48; and based on Nat Geno 2.0 and FTDNA tests my Terminal SNP is Z28 (R1b>U106>L48>Z9>Z28>Z348 and I am classed as Z9*. Group #1 members consist of the surnames: Leask, Lisk, Leisk, Lusk
  2. Group#2 also tests: R1b1a2a1a1a4; R-L48; using FTDNA terminology.  Nat Geno 2.0 tests report this group has the downstream SNP: L47 and its terminal SNP is Z159. ISOGG currently classifies Z159 as R1b1a2a1a1c2b1b. The most tested member of that group tests:  R1b1a2a1a1a4a; R-L47; SNPS; L1-, L48+, M126-, M153-, M160-, M173+, M18-, M207+, M222-, M269+, M343+, M37-, M65-, M73-, P107-, P25+, P310+, P311+, P312-, P66-, SRY2627-, U106+, U152-, U198-, Z8-. One of its members who tested with Nat Geno 2.0 had a terminal SNP L48>L47>Z159 and is classed as Z159 Group #2 members consist of the surnames: Leask, Lisk, Lusk
  3. Group #3 appears to be of a different origin. The most tested member of that group tests: R1b1a2a1a1b4 using FTDNA terminology; R-L21; SNPS Test: L144-, L159.2-, L176.2-, L193-, L21+, L226-, L23+, L96-, M222-, M37-, P312+, P314.2-, P66-, U106-, U152-, U198-. Group #3 consists of the surname: Lusk only.  Leask Group #3 is not R-L48 like groups #1 & #2; I conclude they are of a different geographic origin. ISOGG currently classifies Group #3 as R1b1a2a1a2b PF6570/S28/U152 Group #3 is thought by many experts to have come north from Iberia to England and Ireland1.

 

 2009 Report of Dr. David Faux:

Dr. David Faux concluded in 2009 that there were two distinct Leask lineages found in both the mainland of Scotland and in Shetland and Orkney. Subsequent testing has not challenged the conclusions of Dr. Faux. He concluded the following after reviewing the Y-DNA Testing:

  • Group #1: Leasks from Group #1 include 2 members who have been classified as R1b1c9 and classified as S21 positive (+); S28 negative (-). This finding supports the likelihood that this branch of Leasks is of Scandinavian origin from central Jutland or Anglo-Saxon if from Friesland. Two Shetland Leasks are part of Leask Group 1 which includes members from Shetland and the Mainland who spell their name Leask, Leisk or Lisk.
  • Group #2: This second, distinctly different strain of Y-DNA (“Group 2”) has emerged among those who spell their name Leask, Lisk or Lusk. The participants in the study who fall in this group have been classified R1b by Dr. Faulk. On his Shetland Y-DNA Study website((www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandislandsYdataKtoM.html)) Dr. Faulk states the Y-DNA of Leask Group 2 is an extremely rare R1b haplotype. Whereas there are many people with Y-DNA similar to the Leask Group 1, Dr David Faulk states Leask Group 2 has: “An extremely rare haplotype…..No Exact matches anywhere…..Few and very scattered 11/12 matches in Recent Ethnic Origins Database; It appears that there are two entirely unrelated Leask lineages, found both on the Scottish Mainland and in Shetland.”

In evaluating the 2006 test of two Shetland Leasks, Dr. Faulk wrote in an email dated June 14, 2006: “S21 is Scandinavian or North German. Due to migrations, however, after the fall of the Roman Empire this marker can be found wherever North Germans (those residing close to the North Sea) and Scandinavians (e.g. Ostrogoths) settled and that includes Italy. In Britain they are likely to be Anglo-Saxon . In Lowland Scotland and England. Over ¾ are from Friesland (A model of ancient Anglo-Saxon) are S21+, the rest do not have this marker. It could also be Danish Viking if the family was originally from Danelaw in England (the east coast) or from Denmark directly. Furthermore some Normans would be S21+ such as the Sinclairs of Orkney (Earls of Orkney) – as we have seen with specific testing in this family. In Norway S21 makes up about 2/3 of the R1b population – In other words it predominates here.”

Dr. Faulk concluded the discussion by saying: “S21 predominates in both Norway and Friesland so the probability is Anglo-Saxon, Norwegian or Danish. This is where knowing place of origin is important since if lowland Scot then likely Anglo-Saxon. If from Caithness, then likely Norwegian.”

These comments from Dr. Faulk demonstrate why better documented knowledge of Leask Family and Clan history is so important to the study. For the sake of Clan historians and to encourage further study and testing of Leask history and documents, all available historical documents and information should be published on a website like this one.

 

The Y-DNA Study Needs Your Help:

Because it is impossible at this time to distinguish between Danish Vikings and Anglo-Saxons from Northern Germany it becomes important to comb through Leask known history to determine if there is hard evidence of Norwegian, Danish, Anglo-Saxon, or even Norman origin. Any hard evidence would be very helpful in distinguishing between the Scandinavian or North German origin of the Group 1 Leasks.

In her booklet, The Leasks, Madam Leask of Leask stated on page 1:“Eric Laesk in Orkney was by repute Crown Chamberlain to his kinsman, the King of Denmark, when Orkney belonged to that country.” Laesk (found in Denmark is a spelling of Leask. Madam Leask pointed out this connection required more research.

Sir Brian Chalmers Leask of Australia, in his book LEASK’S Genealogical Guide to some AUSTRALIAN Families their Antecedents and GENEALOGIES, on page 332 wrote: “The earliest evidences of the name are in Papa Westray, in the Orkney Islands, c.1084 and in the Slains district of Buchan, Co. Aberdeen, 1290, the lands at Leskgaronne were granted in 1341 and the charter signed by King David II in 1370, and in 1391 Thomas de Laysk witnessed at Kirkwall, Orkney Is., a charter by Henry St. Clair, Earl of Orkney, from then on the names are too numerous to mention with the exception that from 1460 – 1470 William de Lask acts as Crown Chamberlain for the King of Denmark in Papa Westray and is stated as a descendant of the Danish Royal line.”

Based on what we have learned we believe Sir Brian Chalmers Leask appears to have been wrong in concluding that the Leasks were in Papa Westray, in the Orkney Islands around 1084. The document he cites was written much later than he assumed. To date we have found no evidence that supports this claim.

To date we have found no support for claims that the Leasks were kinsmen of the Kings of Denmark. It is important that any Leask who has information substantiating these claims or who lives where they can do research on these claims should forward what they know or find out to Mac Leask at Mac@LeaskBV.Com.

So far we only have participants in the study who spell their name Leask, Leisk (a Shetland spelling), Lisk and Lusk (Irish). There are no participants from those Leasks closely related to the Leask Clan Chief’s family. More participants are certainly needed before we can come to any definitive conclusions. With more participants we may even find a third Leask Group. This would by no means be unusual. Certainly we need more participants from different branches of the Leasks and of those with any of the many spellings of the name Leask. To be successful we especially need the participation of Leasks related to the Clan-Chief’s family to determine which group is the main Leask line.

If you wish to join the study go to FamilyTreeDNA.com and under groups go to the Leask Study, join and select the tests you wish to take or contact Mac Leask at Mac@LeaskBV.Com.


  1. http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml#L21 

After the Union with England (1603 AD forward)

•     1608 AD        Earl Patrick’s outrageous behavior and many his alleged crimes as Earl of Orkney led made Bishop Law in 1608 to write the following to King James VI ‘Alas, dear and dreaded Sovereign, truly it is to be pitied that so many of your Majesty’s subjects are so manifoldly and grievously oppressed; some by ejection and banishment from their homes and native soil, others by contorting the laws and extorting their goods, the most part being so impoverished that some of them neither dare nor may complain, but in silent and forced patience groan under their grievance.’ (11-page 29-30)

•     1609 AD        Earl Patrick is arrested and accused of many things including forced labor, but in the end he was indited on seven counts of treason. (11-page 30)

•     1615 AD        Earl Patrick Stewart of Orkney was beheaded and his son Patrick was hanged within a few weeks of each other in 1615, in Edinburg. (10-page 155) (11-page 30) The Stewart Earls were followed by years of absentee tacksmen. As a result of continued abuse and famine the people of Orkney continued to suffer (11-page 31)

•     March 27, 1625 AD        James VI of Scotland and James I of England dies of a massive stroke. (4-page 415)

•     1631-33 AD        During the famine years of 1631 and 1633 some 3000 to 4000 people are believed to have perished (11-page 31)

•     May 13, 1639 AD        (A) The Trot of Turriff: Royalist troops representing King Charles, led by Gordon, Marquis of Huntly routed the Covenanters who were garrisoned at Turriff. (1-page 146-149)

•     June 15, 1639 AD        At Megray Hill, Montrose and the Earl Marischal who led the Covenanters routed James Gordon, Viscount Aboyne who led the Royalists. (1-page 149-153)

•     June 18, 1639 AD        (A) Brig of Dee: Royalists led by James Gordon, Viscount Aboyne, successively defended Aberdeen against an army of covenanters led by James Graham, Earl of Montrose. (1-page 150-54)

•     August 28, 1640 AD        Newburn: An English army led by the Earl of Northumberland defeated a Scottish army Led by Sir Alexander Leslie of Balgonie and Montrose. (2-page 113-116)

•     1643 AD        Orkney’s long association with the Earls of Morton begin as when William Douglas was granted the earldom lands by Charles I in exchange for loans of large sums of money.

•     September 13, 1644 AD        Justice Mills: James Graham, Earl of Montrose, now leading Royalist troops, successfully captured Aberdeen city from covenanters. (1-page 155-165 )

•     October 28, 1644 AD        Fyvie: Graham, Earl of Montrose, leading Royalist troops, engaged covenanter troops led by Archibald Campbell, marquis of Argyll. The result was a stalemate. (1-page 167-172)

•     July 2, 1645 AD        (A) Alford: The Royalists, under the Earl of Montrose, decisively defeated the covenanters. (1-page 173-182)

•     August 15, 1645 AD        Kilsyth: Montrose, leading the Royalists defeats General Baillie, the Scottish Parliament Commander and his covenanter army. (2-page 117-119)

•     September 13, 1645 AD        Philiphaugh (South of Selkirk): Major General Sir David Leslie leading a covenanter army defeated Montrose’s army of Royalists. (2-page 121-123)

•     September 3, 1650 AD        Dunbar: Cromwell and the English defeated General Leslie and the Scots. (2-page 125-128)

•     July 27, 1689 AD        Killiecrankie: Colonel John Graham, Viscount of Dundee, was defeated by General Hugh MacKay and Lord Murray in support of King William III ending hope of a Jacobie revival. (2-page 129-135)

•     February 12, 1692 AD        Glencoe: The Macdonalds of Glencoe are massacred. (2-page 137-139)

•     June 1698 AD        The Leasks lost their remaining lands in Aberdeen as a result of investing borrowed money in the ill-fated Darien Scheme in June 1698 that was secured by their land. (bi)

•     September 20, 1745 AD      Prestonpans: Scots supporting Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Jacobite cause defeated a small English army. (2-page 141-147)

•     December 23, 1745 AD       (A) Inveruie: A Jacobite force, led by Lord Lewis Gordon, defeated a government force led by Lord Louden and Duncan Forbes of Culloden. (1-page 183-193)

•     April 18, 1746 AD        Culloden: The Jacobite cause is defeated with his Highland supporters . (2-page 149-156)

•     1750 AD        Aberdeen: Start of the dispersal of Farm Tourns into single farmsteads and new planned villages.

Mary Queen of Scots and James VI Rule as the Clan Gordon and the Clan Hay Dominate the Northeast of Scotland (1543 AD to 1603 AD)

•     September 9, 1543 AD        The nine month old infant, Mary, was crowned Queen of the Scots (4-page 319)

•     February 12, 1545 AD        Ancrum Moor: Henry VIII’s army under Sir Ralph Evers was defeated by the Scots (2-page 99-103)

•     1551 AD        William Leask appears in a cognition, dated 1551 regarding the marches between the lands of Nether Ardlethin, belonging to Alexander Chalmers of Balnacraig, Arthur Forbes, and Alexander Hay, portioners thereof, and the Ald mil of Essilmonth, belonging to Thomas Cheyne, fiar of Esselmont, parish of Ellon, co Aberdeen. (bd)

•     1557 AD        The English fleet lands at Kirkwell. The town is bombarded and partly burned. Local defenses drive the English off (10-page 154)

•     1559 AD        Adam Bothwell was appoint was appointed Bishop of Orkney in 1559. He was the last Vatican appointed Bishop of Orkney. As he was the only bishop who stood in apostolic succession from pre-reformation to post-reformation church, he was invited to crown the infant King James VI. It is to Adam Bothwell’s credit that the Cathedral did not share the fate of churches and abbeys in mainland Scotland but survived intact. Unfortunately, he was surrounded by greedy clergy and predatory relatives. Within a short time, many of the old farms were taken over by incomers, tradesmen had settled in Kirkwell and Scottish names had spread throughout the islands. Local customs and speech appear to have been adopted by the newcomers (11-page 28)

•     October 28, 1562 AD        Corricchie: George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was defeated by the supporters of Mary, Queen of Scotts. (1-page 106-117)

•     1564 AD        Lord Robert Stewart (1533-1593), King James V’s illegitimate brother receives the crown lands from his sister, Mary Queen of Scots. He soon became Sheriff Principal in the Islands. He acquired almost absolute power in the Islands. (11-page 28) Under the Stewart Earls, life for ordinary farmers and merchants became difficult, lands were frequently appropriated and hurdles and restrictions caused them problems. Trade could only occur under Stewart licenses, forced labor was introduced and all ferry traffic was under strict control (10-page 152-53)

•     June 19, 1566 AD        Charles James, the future James VI, is born to Mary, Queen of the Scots and her husband Henry Stewart, lord Darnley. (4-page 383)

•     December 17, 1566 AD        Charles James, the future James VI, is baptized as a Catholic in a lavish ceremony in Sterling Castle. (4-page 383)

•     July 24, 1567 AD        Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate under a threat of death. (4-page 365)

•     July 29, 1567 AD        James VI is crowned as an 13 month old infant King after his mother, Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate in a austere Protestant ceremony. (4-page 382)

•     1567 AD        Incoming families such as the Balfours and the Belldendens dethrone the Sinclair Family as leaders of Orkney society. Despite the fact that the old Norse laws were ratified by the Scottish Parliament under Mary Queen of Scots, and that promises were made to maintain the independence of the laws of Orkney, Scots law and land tenure gradually crept in. Bishop Boswell was suspended for some time and never returned to the Islands. (11-page 28)

•     October 10, 1571 AD        (A) Tillyangus: The Gordons led, by Adam Gordon defeated the Forbes, who were led by black Arthur’ (1-page 119-125)

•     November 20, 1571 AD        (A) Craibstane: The Gordons, led by Adam Gordon defeated the Forbes. (1-page 126-127)

•     September 2, 1574        William Lesk of that Ilk signed as one of the ‘Barons of the North and others’ the oath of allegiance to King James VI. (be)

•     September 10, 1574 AD       Pinkie Brook (near the Esk): The English under Somerset defeated the Scots. (2-page 105-111)

•     1581 AD        Lord Robert Stewart, despite having been arrested earlier for suspicion of treason in his negotiations and dealings with the King of Denmark, charms King James VI so much that in 1581 he was made ‘Earl of Orkney, Lord of Shetland, and Knight of Birsay.’ (11-page 28)

•     1584 AD        The year is described by Orkney Historian J Storer Clouston as Robert Stewart’s ‘vintage year’ of oppression in the islands, when land was confiscated on the flimsiest of pretexts. (11-page 29)

•     February 8, 1587 AD        Mary, Queen of the Scots is executed by Elizabeth of England. (4-page 380)

•     1589 AD        The Catholic Earls (Errol & Huntly) joined in rebellion, marched towards Edinburgh but the rebellion petered out. King James led an army north to Aberdeen to take punitive action. At first Huntly pondered resistence, but disbanded his forces at Brig o’ Dee and submitted to King James peacefully. (1-page 128-129)

•     February, 1592 AD        The Earl of Huntley’s men attacked Donibristle House on the Forth and murder James Stewart, The earl of Moray. (1-page 129)

•     1593 AD        Earl Patrick Stewart (1569-1615), succeeds his father as Earl of Orkney. He earned the name ‘Black Patie’ as he seems to have lacked his fathers ability to charm himself out of trouble. (11-page 29)

•     1594 AD        The Earl of Erroll joined in the Earl of Huntley’s rebellion against the King, James VI. He was later pardoned. (bf)

•     October 3, 1594 AD        Glenlivet: The Earl of Huntley, George Gordon, in rebellion against King James, defeats the Earl of Argyll (Campbell). (1-page 128-137)

•     1594 AD        Because the Earl of Erroll (George Hay) joined in the Earl of Huntley’s (George Gordon) in rebellion against the King, King James VI destroyed Erroll’s Slains Castle and Huntley’s Castle at Strathbogie. (1-page 135)

•     1595 AD        In 1595 “for good service of the said Wil L. [sic] younger, the said lands he (the king) gave to him again after the outcasting of the said Franc.” (Earl of Erroll) preserving the Leask lands. (bg)

•     1596 AD        Walter Leisk of that ilk, with a legitimate son James, is named in the ecclesiastical records as having studied at Marischal College in Aberdeen. (bh)

•     March 24, 1603 Elizabeth I of England dies. (4-Page 382)

•     July 25, 1603 AD        James VI of Scotland is crowned as James I of England uniting the crowns of England and Scotland. (4-page 400)

James V (1513 AD to 1542 AD)

•     September 21, 1513 AD        James V is crowned King of Scotland 12 days after his father died at Floden Field. James V was barely 17 months old. (4-page 298)

•     February 26 1514/1515 AD        William Leask, 7th of Leask, on February 26, 1514/1515, as Willame Lesk, Burgess of Abirdene, grants a letter of manrent in favour of William Hay, Earl of Erroll. (bb)

•     April 18, 1521 AD        A precept of sasine dated April 18, 1521 is granted by William Hay, Earl of Errol, in favor of his son, William Hay, brother and nearest heir of the late John Hay of ‘Neddir Leisk cum molendino’ (Neither Leask with its mill), in the barony of Slains, co Aberdeen. (bc)

•     1528 AD        A rebellion broke out in the islands that seems to have been a feud between various branches of the Sinclair Family. The rebellion was led by James Sinclair, a relative of the Sinclair Earls. He became Governor of Kirkwell Castle. One of the reasons for the revolt may have been that Lady Margaret was an absentee holder of the tack. The Earl of Caithness, a Sinclair set sail for Orkney with soldiers on board, ostensibly to keep law and order, as he had received a royal mandate. (11-page 27)

•     1529 AD        Battle of Sumerdale in the moorlands of south Stenness: Two Sinclair cousins battle. The cadet side (led by James Sinclair) comprised of Orcadians routed the invaiding army made up of Caithnessmen led by the Earl of Caithness, who was the senior branch. Subsequently James Sinclair was knighted by King James V (10-page 161) (11-page 27)

•     1540 AD        King James V visits Orkney with a fleet of 16 ships. (11-page 27) He changed the terms of the tact giving it to Oliver Sinclair of Pitcairns, despite Lady Margaret’s protests. The office of Lawman was replaced by that of Sheriff, and the roithmen (members of head court) of old became ‘suitors of court’. Oliver Sinclair was appointed Sheriff, Justice, Admiral and Baillie and had to hold courts for all of these four functions. (11-page 27-8)

•     December 8, 1542 AD        Mary, daughter of James V, the future Queen of the Scots is born. (4-page 319)

•     December 14, 1542 AD        James V dies at thirty, perhaps of cholera or dysentery at the palace in Falkland. (4-page 314)

James IV (1488 AD to 1513AD)

•     June 26, 1488 AD        James IV was crowned King of Scotland.

•     February 22, 1498/99 AD         As Willelmo Laysk de eodem, he is witness to a contract dated February 22, 1498/99 between Johannem Chaumer de Auchcorvy (John Chaumer of Auchcorvy) and Dauid Knox de Auchcorvy (David Knox of Auchcorvy) regarding a marriage between their children. (ao)

•     October 9, 1498 AD        Willelmo Lesk de eodem (William Leask) was witness to the precept of sasine, dated October 9, 1498, granted by William Hay, Earl of Erroll, in favor of his son, John Hay, of half the lands of Brogane Lesk, in the barony of Slains, co Aberdeen, on the resignation of Agnes Brogan and her son, Thomas Alexander. (an)

•     September 9, 1499 AD        “Witnessing me, Jhon Cheyne of Esselmont, till be bundyn and oblist, and to be be becumyn men and servand to my lord Erroll for all the days of my lyf, myne allegeans accebtit allenarly to our Soverane Lord and Kyng. Dated at the Chappel of Lasque, 9 September, 1499. Befor thir witnesses, Wilyam Hay of Ardendracht, Mastir Alexander Cabell, Parson of Banchory, and Gylbert Hay.” (ap)

•     1500 AD        “By 1500 the Earls of Erroll residing in Old Slains Castle, were a mighty power in the district, and from most of the barons around they held ‘Bands of Manrent,’ so common in Scottish history, and which came to be a source of great trouble to the crown.” (aq)

•     April 16, 1504 AD        Thomas of Laysk (perhaps another son of William the 5th Chief) had an action in the Court of Session in Newburg, parish of Foveran co Aberdeen, on April 16, 1504 against Alexander Bannerman in Knaven for relief of rent of the third part of the lands of Knaven. Said Thomas Leask undertook to warrend kape and defend Alexander Bannerman in Knaven skaithless and free of maile of the third part of Knavene taken up by him frae the said Alexander insofar as law wile. (ar)

•     August 1504 AD        As Willelmo Leisk de eodem, William Leask, 5th of Leask, appears in an instrument of sasine, dated in August 1504, granted by William Hay, Earl of Erroll, Constable of Scotland, with consent of his son, Sir William Hay of Capeth, in favour of another son, John Hay, of the lands of Craigiecroft with its mill, and the multures from said earl’s lands of Leysk, Mekil, Artrawchy, and Auchlethen in the barony of Slains, co Aberdeen. Alexander Leask, oldest son of William, appears in the document as Alexander Leisk de eodem, baillie (balivus) of William Hay, Earl of Erroll. (as)

•     1505/1506 AD        William Laysk, (second son of Wlliam Leask the fifth Clan Chief) is admitted a burgess of Aberdeen, co of Aberdeen, in 1505/06. (at)

•     1506 AD        Richard Leask, grandson of Jamis of Lask, son of William Leask is appointed Exor (executor) to Sir David Sinclair in 1506. (av) Richard Leask, (the grandson of Jamis, son of Thomas) was the progenitor of the Leasks of Shetland. (au) Richard was the oldest son of William. William was the oldest son James or Jamis de Lask.

•     November 29, 1507 AD        Andrew Gray brought an action against Thomas Leisk in Newburgh on November 29, 1507 for having a violent occupation. (aw)

•     February 17, 1509/10 AD        As Willelmum Laysk de eodem, William Leask is a member of an inquest, held at the court of Alexander Bannerman of Waterton, sheriff-depute of Aberdeen, at Aberdeen on February 17, 1509/10, to inquire into the lands pertaining to William Johnston on the death of his father, Alexander Johnstone of Johnstone. (ax)

•     September 9, 1513 AD        Flodden Field: James IV and over 50 Clan Chiefs were killed in one of Scotland’s worst losses to the English.

•     September 9, 1513 AD        On September 9, 1513 the Leask Clan Chief (William Lask and his son (Alexander Lask) were killed at Flodden Field with their feudal superior William Hay, Earl of Errol and King James IV.(ay) The Earl of Errol fought on King James IV left with the Earls of Crawford and Montrose, between the borders division led by the Earls of Huntly and Home on the extreme left and King James IV who fought in the center. (az)

•     1513 AD        Alexander Lask’s younger brother, William Lask, Burgess of Aberdeen, became the 6th Leask Clan Chief as a result of the death of William Lask and his son, Alexander at Flodden. (ba)

•     1513 AD        A tack was given to Lord Henry Sinclair’s widow after he died at Flodden Field. (11-page 27)

James IV (1488 AD to 1513AD)

To follow

James II & James III rule; the Leask Ties to the Clan Hay become important (1437 AD to 1488 AD)

•     March 25, 1437 AD        James II is crowned in Holyrood Abbey. (4-page 251)

•     November 13, 1440 AD Humphrey Leask (as Umfray Lask of yat ilk) is witness to a charter of confirmation dated November 13, 1440, by James III, King of Scotland, in favour of John Bannerman, burgess of Aberdeen, of the lands of Croffis, otherwise Cruives, previously held by the latter’s nephew, John Bannerman of Alesike. (ad)

•     1446 AD        According to Brian Chalmers, Leask Thomas Lask’s second son-James de Cragy in Orkney, also known as Jamis of Leask, married Prince Henry’s daughter Margaret St. Clair in 1446. Jamis was also known as Lord Huip or Lord Hupe. (ae)

•     1446 AD        James II invites the Earl of Douglas and his brother to dinner and executes them. (2-page 89)

•     1451-55 AD        James II and the Douglas Clan goes to war with each other, which James II wins by 1455. (2-page 89-91)

•     1452 AD        According to Clan Hay history, William de La Hay, the 5th Hereditary High Constable was named the first Earl of Erroll in 1452. (af) He received the title as a reward for his support of James II against the Douglases. November 4, 1456, By a deed at the churchyard in Slains, November 4, 1456, Ulfredus Lask de eodem (Humphry Leask of that ilk) personally resigns his lands of Lask (Leask) and Achlethen (Auchlethen, parish of Cruden) in the barony of Slains into the hands of his superior, Sir William Hay, 1st Earl of Erroll, Constable of Scotland, for new infeftment in favor of his son and heir, Thomas Leask, the fourth Chief. (ah)

•     1456 AD        Wilfred Lask of that Ilk, in 1456 signed a Band of Manrent to William (Hays) Earl of Erroll and resigned the lands of Leask and Auchlethin in favor of his son Thomas Lask. In this deed Thomas is designated ‘armiger’ to superior, Sir William Hay. (ag)

•     1460 AD        James II dies attacks Roxburg Castle, stilled controlled by the English, when one of his prized cannons accidentally burst. His son, the future James III was nine years old. (4-page 259) (1-page 103)

•     March 22, 1460/61 AD        By a deed dated at Slains, co Aberdeen, March 22, 1460/61, Umfra Laysk of that ilk, with the consent of his eldest son and heir, Thomas Leask, disposes (sells) the land called Brinthous, lying in the town (toun) of Tawarty (now Tarty), co Aberdeen, to said Sir William Hay, 1st Earl of Erroll. (ai)

•     1468 AD        A marriage agreement was affected between the daughter (Margaret) of King Christian I of Norway and Denmark and James III. Orkney (Shetland was included later) was pledged to provide a royal dowry. (10-Page 150)

•     July 10, 1469 AD        James III (age 18) marries Margaret (age 10). (4-page 260)

•     1471-2 AD        King James III of Scotland forces Earl William to exchange his earldom estates for land in central Scotland. Orkney is annexed to Scotland (11-page 26)

•      February 20, 1472 AD        Orkney and Shetland annexed from Norway to Scotland.

•     1472 AD        The bishopric was transferred from the see of Nidaros to that of St Andrew (11-page 26)

•     1480 AD        Lord Henry Sinclair is appointed the first tacksman leasing the land from the King of Scotland. Lord Henry stayed on as tacksman until 1513 when he was killed at Flodden Field. (11-page 27)

•     July 14, 1483 AD        Thoma Lesk de eodem (Thomas Leask of that ilk), is witness, with his second son Johanne Lesk filio dicti Thome (John Leask), and others, to the precept of sasine, dated July 14, 1483, granted by Thomas Erskine, lord of the barony of Kellie, in favor of Alexander Menzies, burgess of Aberdeen, and of his wife Elizabeth Leslie, of the lands of Laskguyeon, in said barony of Kellie, co Aberdeen, on the resignation of John Menzies. (aj)

•     August 4, 1484 AD        Willielmo Laisk de eodem (William of that Ilk) is designated baillie (ballivo meo) of Gilbert Hay of Carmuk (Son of Sir Gilbert Hay of Dronlaw (ak)), in a precept of sasine in favor of Walter Hay, son of Gilbert Hay of Caramuk, of his lands of Caramuk and Ardgeicht, in the parish of Ellon, co of Aberdeen, dated at Ellon August 4, 1484. (al) William is the 5th Clan Chief.

•     January 14, 1488/89 AD        Wilyame off Laysk (William of Leask) is a witness to a letter of manrent granted by Alexander Fraser of Fillorht (Philorth, parish of Fraserburgh, co Aberdeen) to William Hay, Earl of Erroll, dated at the Chanonry of Ross, January 14, 1488/89. (am)

•     June 11, 1488 AD        James III is killed south of Sterling between Sauchie and Bannock Burns as a result of encounter with Border rebels. It is unknown who killed him despite the offer of 100 merks of land for the identity of the killer. (4-page 271-272)

James I (1406 AD to 1437 AD)

•     March 22, 1406 AD        James, the young Stewart Prince of Scotland who was later to become James I, was captured by Norfolk pirates and then imprisoned in the Tower of London by King Henry IV, king of England for 18 years. (4-page 227)

•     June 1406 AD        With the heir to the throne (James I) a captive of the English, the Scottish parliament had no option but to confirm the dead Kings brother, the Duke of Albany, as governor and regent of Scotland. (4-page 228)

•     July 24, 1411 AD        (A) Reid Harlaw: (about ten miles from Aberdeen) Highlanders led by Donald of the Isles fought against lowlanders led by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar. A bloody, but indecisive battle, fought near Inverurie, with both sides retiring from the field at the end of the day. The Provost of Aberdeen was slain in the battle. As a result the Provosts were forbidden to fight in battles. (1 page 89-102)

•     1420 AD        Just before his death Henry II in 1420 AD, he appoints his brother-in-law Sir David Menzies of Weem as his representative in the Islands. David became so hated for his harsh regime that after only four (4) years a long list of complaints was sent to the King. It accused Menzies, among other things, of taking the seal of the country from the Lawman and using it as he pleased, and of having brought in a lot of foreigners who were a veritable pest to the people. (11-page 25)

•     1424 AD        James I returns to Scotland at 30 years old. (2 page 88)

•     1427 AD        James I calls a Parliament at Inverness where he arrests 40 clan chiefs and executes most of them. (2 page 88)

•     1434 AD        William Sinclair becomes the last Sinclair Earl. (11-page 25)

•     October 5, 1436 AD        Humphrey Leask, the 3rd Clan Chief, oldest son of Thomas, who as Wmfra Lask was a member of an assize, held October 5, 1436, “of the gentillys of the cuntre in ane testificatione of the lard of Ardendracht bailye of the baronry of Slanis that the lands of Brogan pertenit in property to the Earl of Erroll. (ac)

•     February 20, 1437 AD        James I is executed at Blackfriars Monastery. His son, the future James II is only six years old (4-page 249)

The Clan Sinclair and Henry St. Clair, Earl of Orkney (1371 AD to 1406 AD)

•     March 26, 1371 AD         Robert II, nephew of David II, becomes the first Stewart King (4-page 212)

•     1379 AD            William de Lask of Laskgaroune, Ellon, Aberdeenshire is the first
known specific Leask name appearing in Orkney in 1379. His first wife was Alicia de Rath, having no apparent issue. His second wife was Mariota de San Michelle. She is believed to be a descendant of Sir John de St. Michael. She had three children Thomas, Peter and William. Source: Sir Brian Chalmers Leask

•     1379 AD            Henry St. Clair of Rosslyn becomes the first Sinclair Earl of Orkney in 1379 when King Haakon VI Magnusson granted the Orcadian Earldom to him. He is William Sinclair’s (St. Clair) son. Henry will serve as Chief Justice of Scotland and Admiral of the Seas. He was given Shetland as part of the Earldom. King Hakon must have thought highly of him and his qualities as a future earl and faithful vassal. His mother was daughter of the Earl Malise of Stratherene and Orkney, and had married into the Sinclair family. One of the terms of Henry’s installation was “The Earl shall not build castles or other fortifications in the Islands without the King’s consent.” (11-page 25)

•     1380 AD           Henry builds Kirkwell Castle despite the prohibition against it (11-page 25)

•     1380 AD             Willelmi de Lask, the elder, lord of that ilk (believed to be the same William Lesk who was the first clan chief, or his son) “…bequeathed a pound of wax yearly to the altar of the Holy Rood in the church of St. Mary of Ellon, …and from his land of Logy, near Ellon, a stone of wax yearly, for lights to be burned on all Sabbath and feast days for ever on the tomb of himself and his wives Alice de Rath, and Mariot de St. Michael …and 12 silver pennies yearly from aforesaid land…for preparation of aforesaid wax…” The contract was witnessed by Alexander, Bishop of Aberdeen at Logy, 1380. The records continue “The ancient lords of Lask (or Leask), in Slains must have had some attachment towards the Church in Ellon. When the Session Records open, more than 200 years after this time William of Lask (Laysk) of that ilk and his tenants ware found as regular attendants in Ellon at the Reformed Church.” (i,j,k)

•     October 9, 1388 AD        Toma de Lask domino eiusdem (Thomas Leask, lord of that Ilk) appears as a witness to a charter dated October 9, 1388, at Aberdeen, by Johannes de bona Villa dominus de Balhelvy (John Bonevile, Lord of Balhelvy Boneville) to Johanni Fraser domino de Forglen (John Fraser, Lord of Forglen) of his two towns of Ardhendrachtis (now Ardendracht), in the parish of Cruden, and the earldom of Buchan, co Aberdeen. (m) Other witnesses include Thomas Hay-constable of Scotland, Alexander Fraser-Sheriff of Aberdeen, John Keith-Lord of Inverugie, and Andrew Turing-Lord of Foveran. (n)

•     January 8, 1388/89 AD           Toma de  Lask domino eisudem (Thomas Leask of that ilk-2nd Chief) appears as a witness to a charter, dated at Forglen, co Aberdeen, January 8, 1388/89, by Johannes de Boneville (John Boneville), son and heir of the late John Boneville of Balhelvy Boneville, to John Fraser, lord of Forglen, of the lands of Balhelvy, Boneville, Colynstoun, Ardendrachtys, Blaretoun, Many and Achlochery, co Aberdeen. (o)

•     March 18, 1389/90 AD             Thomas de Lask (2nd Chief) appears as Thomam de Lask in a precept of sasine, dated March 18, 1389/90 by William de Camera (Chalmers or Chambers), lord of Fyndon (now Findon), to Thomas Kynidy of the lands of Athquhorthy (now Auchorthies, Parish of Inverurie, co Aberdeen) in which he is designated baillie of Fyndon. (p)
•     1390 AD        Thomas de Lask or Laysk, second Clan Chief, was baillie of the barony fo Fyndon, 1390. (q)

•     May 10, 1390 AD         As Thomas de Lask dominus eiusdem (Thomas de Lask, lord of that ilk) had a charter dated May 10, 1390, from Henry Brogan (de Brogane), Lord of Achlowne, now Achlowne, Parish of Foverane, co Aberdeen (r), to Thomas granting him half of Henry Brogan’s lands of Achlowne Moness. now Minnies, Parish of Foveran (s), and Touyhafe (Tillveve) in the barony of King Edward, co Aberdeen. (u) Thomas Leask (2nd Chief) was granted a confirmation, dated at Aberdeen, co Aberdeen October 21, 1391, by James Lindsay, lord of Buchan, of the above mentioned charter to him of Auchloun by Henry Brogan. (v)

•     May 10, 1390 AD         The other half of the Brogan lands were granted by charter, dated May 10, 1390, by said Henry Brogan, to his father, John Fothes (de Fothes) (w), who was granted a charter of confirmation by James Lindsay, Lord of Buchan, dated October 21, 1391. (x)

•     1391 AD             In 1391, Thomas de Laysak (Lethe or Lask), a knight, (believed to be the second clan chief) witnessed a charter by Henry St. Clair, who became Earl of Orkney in 1379 when King Haakon VI granted the Orcadian Earldom to William Sinclair’s son Henry Sinclair (St. Clair). According to Brian Chalmers Leask, Thomas Leask’s son-James de Cragy or Jamis of Leask married Prince Henry’s daughter.

•     April 23, 1391 AD         In Kirkwall (Kirkwaw), Orkney on April 23, 1391 Thomas de Laysak (Lask), a knight (believed to be the second Leask clan chief), among others, witnessed a charter that transfers lands in Auchdale and Newberg to David Sinclair from Henry St. Clair, who became Earl of Orkney in 1379 when King Haakon VI granted the Orcadian Earldom to William Sinclair’s son Henry Sinclair (St. Clair). (aa)

•     1391-1398 AD               Nevin Sinclair believes the reason so many people signed the 1391 document is that the gathering was to plan Prince Henry’s trip to America. Some claim Thomas joined Prince Henry on his voyage to the new world with about 300 of Prince Henry’s men in 12 ships. Nevin Sinclair claims he believes Thomas transferred from Aberdeen to Orkney to accompany Prince Henry to the new world. Sir Brian Chalmers Leask says both Prince Henry and Sir Thomas de Lask were Knight’s Templar and therefore that they were both on a crusade. (ab)

•     August 20, 1392 AD           By a charter, dated August 20, 1392, Thomas Lask and John Fothes, son of Alan Fothes, granted the whole of the former Brogan lands to David Fleming, son of Malcolm Fleming, lord of Biggar, co Lanark. (y)

•     August 28, 1392 AD           As Thomas de Lask, he is a witness to the consent by Alicia Brogan, wife of Henry Brogan, of the instrument of renunciation of Christian Brogan, sister of Henry Brogan, and to the renunciation of Alicia’s own right of terce in the lands of Auchloun. (z)

•     June 2, 1398 AD           Nevin Sinclair claims Prince Henry St. Clair (Sinclair) landed in Nova Scotia, having sailed from Orkney. With Prince Henry was hundreds of his men in twelve ships. They also are believed to have stopped in Labrador, Massachusetts, and to Newport, Rhode Island. Nevin Sinclair believes it is likely that Thomas de Lask was on the trip. It is claimed they left traces of the voyage in Nova Scotia, Massachusetts (The tomb of the Chief of Clan Gunn) and Newport, Rhode Island (The Tower on the Green near the Tennis Center).

•     1400s AD           English attacks on Orkney and Orcadian fishermen are recorded from early in the 1400s. Prince Henry St. Clair dies at Kirkwell in one of these battles. (10-page 150) Henry St. Clair is succeeded by his son Henry II who spent little or no time in the Islands. He serves until 1420 AD. (11-page 25)

•     September 14, 1402 AD           Homildon (Humbleton) Hill (near Wooler): The Percy’s on behalf of Henry VI of England defeated the Scots led by the Earl of Douglas. (2 page 81-85)

 

The Bruce Kings (1284 AD to 1371 AD)

•     February 5, 1284 AD      The infant Princess Margaret, The Maid of Norway is acknowledged as heir presumptive to the Scottish throne.1

•     1284-1328 AD                  Henry Cheyne continues as bishop of Aberdeen.2

•     March 19, 1286 AD         Alexander III, King of Scotland dies while riding his horse at night. As a result Margaret, the 3 year old daughter of Eric, King of Norway, who was to marry Edward I of England’s son, Edward II, was to become queen. (11-page 25)3 The death of King Alexander III at age 44 is dated March 18, 1286 AD.4

•     April 28, 1286 AD          In 1286 AD at an assembly (parliament) at Scone about April 28, 1286 the nobility first swore fealty to the heir. In order to implement these promises a provisional government was set up that included six wardens or ‘Guardians’ comprising two earls (Alexander Comyn earl of Buchan, Duncan earl of Fife), two bishops (William Fraser of St Andrews, Robert Wishart of Glasgow) and two Barons (John Comyn of Badenoch and James Stewart). The two Comyns and William Fraser were deemed to represent the Balliol interests. James Stewart was linked to the Bruces by marriage and Robert Wishart was a Stewart ally and represented the Bruce interest. The loyalties of Duncan, earl of Fife were less certain, but he was known to be an enemy of close Comyn associate, Hugh de Abernethy.((April 28, 1286-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 96.))

•     September 1286 AD       Further evidence of Bruce’s disregard for the Guardians’ authority occurs in September 1286 AD when he made a bond with associates at Turnberry. This Turnbury pact, which involved Robert the Bruce-lord of Annadale (the elder), his son Robert Bruce-earl of Carrick, James Stewart (the Guardian), his brother John Stewart of Jedburg, Walter Stewart-earl of Menteith and his sons Patrick-earl of Dunbar, Angus Macdonald-lord of Islay and his son, was an agreement to support Richard de Burgh-earl of Ulster, and Thomas de Clare against their enemies. The pact involved saving oaths of allegiance to the English king and whoever should be king and whoever should be king of Scotland ‘by reason of the blod of lord Alexander, king of Scotland according to the ancient customs hitherto approved and used in the Kingdom of Scotland’. This oath has been interpreted as an indication of a diliberate bid by the Bruces for the Scottish throne. This is perhaps reading too much into the oath. Yet Robert the Bruce had apparently been recognized by ‘ancient custom’ as heir to Alexander II in 1238 and the vague oath taken at Turnberry did leave open a possible Bruce Claim, given the uncertainty of succession in September 1286 when either the Maid of Norway or a child of Queen Yolande could be heir. More importantly, the fact that such apact of family and factional, if not national, intent (and with an uncertain military objective) could take place and that a member of the committee of Guardians was involved, was certainly an ‘ugly defiance of the “community of the realm”‘.5

•     1286-1290 AD              The Bruce family appears to oppose the guardians or at least Comyn interests and to be disruptive. Most of the disruption occurred in the south-west. The extent of this disruption can be found in the accounts of the sheriffdoms of Dumfries, Wigtown and Edinburgh, controlled by Comyns or Comyn allies and in the account of the justicar of Galloway. The Comyns had been the hereditary sheriffs of Wigtown since around 1263 OR 1264 AD. The Sinclairs (St Clairs) continued to hold the sheriffdoms of Edinburgh and Linlithgow in the period 1286-89 AD with William Sinclair (who had been made a guardian by 1279 AD of Alexander, heir to the throne. William Sinclair also held the sheriffdom of Dumfries before 1290 AD. William Sinclair was also the justicar of Galloway by 1287. Another family long associated with the Comyns, the Cheynes, held the sheriffdoms of Elgin and Kincardine in the period prior to 1290 AD, while the Mowats continued to control Cromarty and the Meldrum Family held the sheriffdom of Aberdeen. The Moray family, generally supporters of the Comyn family in the thirteenth century, held the sheriffdom of Ary through Andrew de Moray by 1288, and the sheriffdom of Perth through Malcolm de moray in 1288. The sheriffdom of Perth was then in the hands of Nicholas de Hay who was in the Comyn party in 1291. Patrick de Graham held the she riffdom of Sterling by 1289, the Lochore family held the sheriffdom of Fife by 1289 and the Earl of Buchan follower David de Bethun held the sheriffdom of Forfar by 1290. All were supporters of the Comyn family.6

•     July 10, 1289 AD           Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, leader of the Comyn party died shortly after July 10, 1289 AD, having been involved in Scottish politics for almost 50 years.7 John Comyn becomes the earl of Buchan and leader of the Comyn party.8

•     1290 AD           William de Laskereske in 1290 is listed on the Ragman Roll, de Ragements. A legate of Scotland compelled all clergy to give a true account of their benefices, that they might be taxed at Rome accordingly. Subsequently it was applied to four great roles of parchment recording acts of fealty and homage done by the Scots nobility to Edward I of England in 1296. (9)

•     February 20, 1290        Edward I grants Anthony Bek, bishop of Durham, the custody of the lands and tenements in Cumberland and Northumberland which had formerly been held by the king of Scotland.9

•     July 18, 1290            The Treaty of Birgham is signed.10 The treaty stipulated that the Scottish realm was to remain ‘separate and divided from England according to its rightful boundaries, free in itself and without subjection’, and that its rights, laws, liberties and customs were ‘wholly, freely, absolutely, and without subjection’. That was the intention anyway. But Edward I’s negotiators added the ominous words: ‘Saving always the right of our lord king, and of any other whomsoever, that has pertained to him…before the time of the present agreement, or which in any just way ought to pertain to him in the future.’ And King Edward, on ratifying the treaty, insisted on appointing the new Bishop of Durham (Anthony Bek) as his ‘lieutenant’ in Scotland on behalf of the royal pair, and required the Scottish Guardians to obey the bishop (in the event, the appointment seems to have been largely ignored in Scotland.)11

•     August 8, 1290 AD        John Comyn-secular leader of the political community in Scotland, Anthony Bek, Robert Wishart-bishop of Glasgow and two English representatives serve on the Anglo-Scottish commission to negotiate marriage between the Maid and the future Edward II.12

•     September 1290 AD        Margaret, the Maid of Scotland, who was to be married to Edward II of England, son of Edward I, dies in Orkney on the way to Scotland, to become queen.13

•     October 6, 1290 AD       William Fraser, bishop of St Andrews, wrote to Edward I informing him that rumors of Margaret’s death had brought political instability to Scotland and the bishop asked Edward I for his intervention to prevent war. He pointed out that Robert the Bruce, the elder, and his supporters the earls of Mar and Atholl, had come to Perth and were gathering a large armed force. His letter added the recommendation that “If Sir John Balliol comes to your presence we advise you to take care so to treat with him that in any event your honor and advantage be preserved…”14

•     November 6, 1290 AD       It was clear the dominant Comyn party had decided to back the claims to the Scottish throne of John Balliol, John Comyn’s brother-in-law. Some contact had already been made between the Comyn party and the English by November 1290 AD, when Anthony Bek, Edward I’s influential advisor, came to an agreement with John Balliol. On November 6, 1290, at Gateshead, Balliol issued a charter as ‘heir to the kingdom of Scotland’ granting Bek the manors of Wark in Northumberland and Penrith in Cumberland together with all the other lands held by King Alexander in Cumberland. The overseeing role of Edward I was already in evidence as the grant was conditional on the English king’s ratification. No doubt the Comyn’s were aware of winning Bek and the English king over to their side.15

•     Winter 1290-1291 AD        In the winter of 1290-1291, the elder Bruce had asked Edward I to support him as the choice of ‘the Seven Earls’. He had tried to destroy by force the stranglehold the Comyns had on political power in 1286 AD, but the years 1286 to 1288 AD had shown that he had an insufficiently broad power-base. Thus, the urgent appeals by both the Bruce and Comyn parties gave Edward I every reason to believe that his intervention was welcome and that he could take this opportunity to insist on his recognition as lord superior of Scotland.16

•     June 1291 AD          By early June of 1291 AD all the claimants (the thirteen ‘Competitors’) agreed that Edward was the rightful overlord and that they would abide by his judgment on the succession. Further, they agreed that the English king should have possession of the land and especially the royal castles. Control of the Scottish government by the political community of the realm was gradually being forfeited in unusual and difficult circumstances-It was surely the responsibility of the Guardians, if anyone, to relinquish the kingdom and its castles.17

•     June 11, 1291 AD         The Guardians resigned their very authority to be reappointed by the English king. They were no longer elected by the community but were appointed by King Edward. The composition of the Guardians was changed too with an English Baron-Brian fitz Alan, lord of Bedale, added to their number.18

•     June 12, 1291 AD            On June 12, 1291 Edward agreed the decision between the ‘Competitors’ would be made by Edward I in Scotland. He also promised to restore both kingdom and castles to the rightful king within two months of the decision being made.19

•     June 13, 1291 AD           At Upsettleinton, opposite Norham, the Guardians and other magnates swore fealty individually to king Edward I. These leading nobles included the four Guardians including John Comyn of Badenoch, two other members of the Comyn family (John Comyn, earl of Buchan and William Comyn of Kirkintilloch), John Balliol and two members of the Bruce family (Robert Bruce of Annandale and Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick). There then followed a general swearing of fealty at Perth, Ayr, Inverness and Galloway. In his capacity as Guardian, John Comyn of Badenoch together with Brian fitz Alan and the bishop of St Andrews organized the general swearing in at Perth.20

•     November 7, 9 1292 AD         On November 7, 1292 Robert Bruce, the Competitor, realizing that his claim to the Scottish throne was going to be unsuccessful, resigned it to his son Robert Bruce Earl of Carrick. On November 9, 1292 Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick surrendered his earldom of Carrick to his son, the future king of Scotland, Robert, aged 18.21

•     November 17, 1292 AD          In the great hall in Berwick Castle, Edward formally accepts the decision of the auditors and selects John Balloil as the next King of the Scots.22 Robert Bruce of Annandale and the former earl of Carrick refuse to do homage to King John Balloil.23

•     December 1292          Already by December 1292 AD Edward was expressing the forcible viewpoint that he could hear whatever pleas might be brought to him; that he could, if necessary, summon the Scottish king himself; and as far as appeals were concerned, he would not be bound by any previous promises or concessions which he made.((December 1292-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 134.))

•     December 26, 1292 AD            King John Balloil does homage to King Edward I in most unambiguous terms24

•     January 2, 1293             King Edward I forced an important concession from King John who ‘solemnly freed Edward from all obligations and promises which the English king might have entered into with the Guardians and responsible men of the Scottish realm, declaring null and void any written evidence of such promises and explicitly annulling the Treaty of Birgham.((January 2, 1293-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 134.))

•     January 6, 1293 AD          King Edward I overrules decisions of the Guardians in Berwick demonstrating his right to hear appeals and overrule the Guardians25

•     1294 AD            King Edward I summoned the King of Scots as well as his magnates to serve him in France. The English king failed to understand that the Scottish nobility in government, chiefly the Comyns and their supporters, now represented the political community of the Scottish realm and this came before other responsibilities. In this respect, duty to the Scottish realm came before responsibility to the English king as it had for Earl Alexander in 1282 AD.26

•     1294 AD         In the summer of 1294 AD, King John Balliol failed to prevent Master Thomas Dalton of Kirkcudbright, Robert Bruce the elder’s candidate, from becoming the Bishop of Gallway.27

•     1294 AD          Before December of 1294, the Scots were freed ‘from any oaths extracted from them under duress by the absolution of the pope.28

•     1295 AD          Between March and May of 1295 AD, the Scots negotiated an alliance with the French.29

•     July 5, 1295 AD           King John addressed letters to Philip IV appointing four persons to negotiate in France regarding John Balliol’s son, Edward, and a relative of Philip. The four were the experienced William Fraser, bishop of St Andrews, Matthew Crambeth bishop of Dunkeld, John de Soules and Ingreram de Umpharaville. A treaty with france followed on October 23, 1295 AD.30

•     1295 AD          A parliament held a Sterling took the government out of King John Balliol’s hands and given to a ‘Council of Twelve’.  It was decreed that King John could do no act by himself.31 The Council of Twelve was composed of four bishops, four earls and four barons. The four bishops were probably William Fraser of St Andrew, Robert Wishart of Glasgow, Matthew Crambeth of Dunkeld, and Henry Cheyne of Aberdeen. The four earls were probably John Comyn earl of Buchan, Donald earl of Mar, Malise earl of Strathearn, and John de Strathbogie earl of Atholl. The four barons were probably John Comyn of badenoch, James Stewart, Alexander de Balliol, and Geoffrey de Mowbray. This Council was still dominated by the Comyn family, relatives and associates.32

•     Autumn 1295 AD           Tensions between the English and Scottish governments became more obvious in the Autumn of 1295, although it is difficult to understand whether news of the French alliance or the judicial appeal to King Edward I by MacDuff, a younger son of the late Duncan earl of Fife. MacDuff complained that he had not received justice in King John Balliol’s court concerning his inheritance of the lands of Creich and Rires. (Duncan earl of Fife had been murdered by Hugh de Abernethy, a prominent Comyn supporter.)33

•     October 1995 AD         It seems Edward I of England was preparing for action against Scotland by October 1295 AD.  On October 16, 1295 AD, he issued orders to English Sheriffs that all lands and goods of King John and all those Scotsmen ‘who remain in Scotland’ should be taken into the English Kings hands. At the same time he demanded that the castles and towns of Berwick, Roxburgh and Jedburgh should be handed over until the end of the French war. Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale who had done homage to the English king earlier in the year was permitted to keep the castle of Carlisle.34

•     March 24, 1296 AD         Patrick earl of March and Dunbar, Gilbert de Uphraville earl of Angus, Robert Bruce the younger, earl of Carrick, as well as Robert Bruce the elder had don homage to Edward I and promised to ‘serve him well and loyally against all mortal men on March 24, 1296 AD.35

•     March 26, 1296 AD          John Comyn, earl of Buchan set out with a military force on March 26 to attack Carlisle where Robert the Bruce senior was in charge of the garrison. Joining the earl of Buchan were six other earls of Scotland and John Comyn the younger, the Guardian’s son from the Badenoch line.36

•     March 30, 1296 AD          The English army which had gathered around Berwick butchered over 11,000 people.37

•     April 5, 1296 AD               King John Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in a defiant letter which certainly reflected the views of the political community of the realm better than his own actions.38

•     April 27, 1296 AD           The first phase of the Scottish wars took a decisive turn when the Scots army trying to relieve the siege of the town of Dunbar were routed by English troops and those Scots within the castle surrendered. Scottish casualties were estimated at 10,000 dead. This was followed by the surrender to the English of the Scottish castles of Roxburgh, Edinburgh and Sterling.39

•     July 8, 1296 AD         After Edward I marched through Scotland via Perth, Montrose, Banff, and Elgin receiving fealty from Scottish nobles and knights. On July 8, 1296 AD, in a humiliating ceremony at Montrose, John Balliol formally resigned his kingdom to Edward I and had his royal arms stripped from his tabard in public, humiliating circumstances.40

•     July and August 1296 AD         King Edward progressed round Scotland visiting royal centers such as Aberdeen, Banff and Elgin which had been under Comyn control and sent commissions to ‘search the district of Badenoch’ the lordship of the senior Comyn branch. This was to be followed by the swearing of fealty to Edward by every freeholder in Scotland. His takeover of the Scottish government was demonstrated clearly by his removal of the Stone of Destiny, the most precious symbol of Scottish monarchy, from Scone abbey to Westminster abbey as well as by the seizure of other Scottish muniments and government records.41

•      August 8, 1296 AD         Before King Edward I left Scotland, a parliament was held in Berwick on August 28, at which a compilation was made of nearly 1,500 earls, lords, bishops, and leading burgesses who swore fealty to him and formally recorded their homage to him as King of Scotland. This document has come to be known as the ‘Ragman Role’ from the tangle of ribbons, which hung from the seals of the signatories.42

•     1296 AD                             The earliest reference to Leask or a related spelling appeared in 1296 in a document (the so called Ragman Role) recording the name of William de Laskereske, which confirmed his recognition of Edward I (on pain of forfeiture of his lands). (d) It was spelled Lafkerefke (f = s). He was listed as ‘del county fyf’ (fyf = fife) (e)

•     1296 AD                                 The removal of the mainstays of the Scottish government, especially the Comyns, to England was part of the same plan. John Comyn, lord of Badenoch, and John Comyn earl of Buchan, who with Donald earl of Mar, submitted at the same time as John Balliol, were sent to England and ordered to stay south of Trent. Many of the allies of the Comyn family and other leaders were imprisoned in England. (12-pages 161, 162)

•     1296-1303 AD                     Edward I had not achieved a total military victory over Scottish forces in 1296 or 1303 AD. The north of Scotland, Comyn dominated territory, was largely out of English control between 1297 and 1303 AD. To attempt a total military conquest in Scotland, a large permanent English presence and new English fortifications, similar to those built north of Wales in the 1270s and 1280s, would be needed. In 1300 Edward was ‘not in a financial position to build new fortifications in Scotland on a scale that he had done in Wales. The commutation of provisional sentences of exile into large fines based on value of land rents showed his financial priorities. The Comyns has a network of castles throughout Scotland but especially dominating the main communication lines across northern Scotland. It was sensible for Edward to influence the Comyns and use these castles for his own interests instead of building new structures. (12-page 190)

•     1297 AD                              John Comyn, lord of Badenoch and John Comyn earl of Buchan were freed in exchange for their promise to join Edwards Flanders campaign in 1297 AD. (12-page 189)

•     Early 1297 AD                  The revolt of the MacDougalls, led by Alexander’s son Duncan, who had not sworn homage to Edward began in early 1297. Edward I presumably thought that with Alexander MacDougall of Argyll having done homage to him and being a prisoner in Berwick castle, the MacDougalls would not cause problems. He did not understand that by appointing their enemy Alexander MacDonald of Islay in April of 1296 as baille in the sheriffdoms of Lorn, Ross and the Isles (formerly under the control of Alexander MacDougall of Argyll) he would provoke the MacDougalls to revolt. Besides the MacDougalls were as closely linked by marriage to the Comyns as the Balliols were and the MacDougalls had been given the responsibilities for the north-west by the Comyn led government. (12-page 164)

•     May to July 1297 AD      Further significant resistance to Edward I’s administration came from another of Scotland’s ‘government’ families, the Morays. A successful revolt in the north was led by Andrew Moray, son of Andrew de Moray of Petty who had been justicar of Scotia during the Balliol kingship (to 1296) and was an important prisoner in the Tower of London. The younger Alan, who had escaped from his imprisonment in Chester, had soon recaptured the English-held castles in the north, including Inverness, Urquhart, Banff, Elgin and Aberdeen between May and June of 1297. (12-page 165)

•     July 1297 AD                     James Stewart played a significant role in the revolt in the south, which soon ended ignominiously with the surrender at Irvine in early July of 1297. This revolt also involved Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick and Bishop Wishart. The Stewarts had lost control of Kintyre because of King Edward appointed Alexander MacDonald of Islay as baillie of Kintyre formerly under James Stewart’s jurisdiction.43

•     1297 AD to 1304 AD       The brother of John Comyn earl of Buchan, Alexander Comyn of Buchan, was married to William Latimer of an English noble family. He was one of Edward I’s consistent servants having served Edward’s cause as sheriff of Aberdeen from around 1297 to 1304 AD. He must have been at least partly condoned by John Comyn, earl of Buchan.44

•     September 11, 1297 AD         Sterling: William Wallace defeated an English army led by John de Warenne at Sterling Bridge. (2 page 47-52) Moray had been able to gather a large infantry force in the north (probably using the Comyn patronage network) and join Wallace for the battle of Sterling Bridge (12-page 167)

•     July 22, 1298 AD              Falkirk: William Wallace was defeated by Edward I because of the treachery of two barons, the Earls of Angus and Dunbar and others of the Scottish nobility. (2 page 53-57) The Comyns and their accomplices forsook the field during the battle. They have been accused of treachery. Robert Bruce earl of Carrick fought on the English side at Falkirk. (12-page 168, 169)

•     1298 AD                               The new guardianship of 1298 was a joint one between John Comyn the younger and Robert Bruce earl of Carrick. The view that the Comyns were traitors to Wallace at Falkirk is at odds with the fact the Scottish political community appointed John Comyn the younger as a Guardian in 1298 after Falkirk. Though Robert Bruce, the earl of Carrick’s father had fought at Falkirk on the English side, the earl was in Ayrshire at the time of Falkirk and set fire to Ayr to prevent its use by the English. The joint Guardianship was obviously a compromise. (12-pages 169, 170)

•     1299 AD                              John Comyn, earl of Buchan becomes justicar of Scotia. (12-page 124)

•     August 19, 1299 AD        At the council of magnates in Peebles on August 19, 1299 AD John Comyn the younger ‘leapt at the earl of Carrick and seized him by the throat, and the earl of Buchan turned on the bishop of St Andrews, showing the friction that had developed between the parties. (12-page 170)

•     May 1301 AD                    John de Soules was appointed a new sole Guardian on behalf of John Balliol.45
Summer 1301 AD           John Balliol was released from papal custody. It appeared that he would soon return to Scotland to reassume the kingship. (12-page 171)

•     February 1302 AD          Robert the Bruce defects to Edward I. Edward consolidated this defection by arranging a marriage alliance between Elizabeth de Burg and Robert the Bruce earl of Carrick, a member of one of King Edward’s chief magnate families. (12-page 172)46

•     May 1303 AD                   Having been defeated in July 1302 by a Fleming army Phillipe the Fair signed a peace treaty with England from which Scotland was excepted.47

•     May 1303 AD                   King Edward I arrived with his main army in May 1303. Castles and strongholds fell all over Scotland.48Edwards campaign concentrated on the center of Comyn power, northeastern Scotland. (12-page 176)

•     February 9, 1304 AD     John Comyn of Badenoch, the Red Comyn surrendered to Edward on behalf of the Community of Scotland. One member of Scottish nobility seems to have been active throughout: Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick.49 (12-page 186) He had been an ally of Edward I since early 1302, actively participating in Edward’s summer campaign of 1303, commanding a garrison at Aye castle in 1303 and early 1304, and sending large siege weapons to help the English in the assault on Sterling, The capture of which set the seal on the English military victory in July 1304 AD. (12-page 185) It was John Comyn who led the negotiations for Scotland’s wholesale submission to Edward I. (12-page 176)

•     1304 AD                             As part of the submission of 1304 AD, the Scots had to agree to the Ordinances of Edward regarding settlement of Scotland. (12-page 191)

•     March 29, 1304 AD       The lands of the Comyn Earls of Buchan were granted to Henry de Percy by Edward I. (12-page 189)

•     May 1304 AD                  With the exception of the castles at Slains and Balvenie, the lands of the earl of Buchan were restored to the Comyns by Edward I. (12-page 189)

•     1305 AD                            According to the 1305 Ordinances a council of 21 Scots, four bishops, four abbots, five earls, eight barons were to act as a council for King Edward’s new lieutenant of Scotland, John of Brittany. This council would act alongside the chancellor, chamberlain and the justiciars. Pairs of justiciars, one Englishman and one Scotsman, would be responsible for four areas: Lothian, Galloway, the area between the Forth and the Mounth, and the area beyond the Mounth. In the ordinance of 1305 eighteen Scots were named sheriff and only two Englishmen. The sheriffs were to be appointed or removed by the lieutenant or the chamberlain. These ordinances were designed to transfer power from the Scottish king to Englishmen. This settlement was forestalled by Bruce’s murder of John Comyn in 1306. Generally names which had dominated Scottish Government in this period: Comyn, Stewart, Moray later joined by Bruce and Soules were not involved in Key executive posts like justiciars or sheriffdoms. Previously the justiciarships had been the virtual preserve of the Comyns. (12-page192)

•     1305 AD                            Reginald Cheyne, who had already shown his loyalty to Edward I after 1296 AD was appointed as the Scottish co-justiciars beyond the Mounth. The Cheyne family had long been associated with the Comyns. Appointed to serve as the English co-justiciars beyond the Mounth was John de Vaux who had been present in John Comyn’s council at the 1304 submission. A review of the sheriffdoms shows there is a return to local families who held the offices under the Guardians. A number were prominent members of Comyn’s council at the time of the 1304 submission. The Comyns had retained their vast landed inheritance but lost political power, i.e. decision-making authority at the center of government, though through their associates they retained local administrative influence especially in the north. It does appear the Comyn’s lost control of Aberdeen as a reprimand. Alexander Comyn of Buchan was replaced as sheriff of Aberdeen by Norman Leslie, a loyal supporter of Edward I. (12-pages 192-194)

•     February 1305 AD           In the February parliament of 1305, Leslie appealed to the king against the forfeiture of his lands by John Comyn as Guardian and the granting of these lands to Philip de Mowbray, a close Comyn associate. (12-page 193)

•     June 11, 1305 AD            Robert Bruce made a secret alliance with Bishop Lamberton, promising ‘to be one another’s counsel in all their business and affairs at all times and against all individuals’. (12-page 196)

•     1305 AD                             Wallace was captured by John de Menteith and later executed in London by King Edward I on August 23, 1305. (12-page 194) (4-695)

•     February 10, 1306 AD    Robert the Bruce murdered John Red Comyn, in Greyfriers’ church at Dumfries. (12-page 184)

•     1306 AD                              Bruce is crowned King of Scots

•     April 5, 1306 AD              King Edward I appoints Aymer de Valence, Comyn’s brother-in-law as his special Lieutenant in Scotland with wide ranging powers against Bruce particularly in the East. (12-page 199)

•     1306 AD                              Bruce defeated at Battle of Methven

•     1307 AD                              Bruce emerges from hiding and starts a comeback

•     1307 AD                              Edward I died

The Bruce Kings (1306 AD to 1371 AD)

•     March 26, 1306 AD         Robert The Bruce was inaugurated as King of The Scots at Scone50December, 1307 (A)        Siloch: King Robert the Bruce defeated a joint English Scottish force led by John Comyn, Earl of Buchan (1 page 67-70 )

•     December 31, 1307 AD   Inverurie: King Robert the Bruce defeats John Comyn (actual date is disputed) (1 page 70)

•     May 23, 1308 AD (A)      Barra: King Robert the Bruce defeated a joint English Scottish force led by John Comyn, Earl of Buchan. (1 page 70-73)

•     May, 1308 AD?                 John Comyn is defeated at Inverurie in May 1308. He flees south leaving his patrimony to be ravaged in what is known as the herschip of Buchan, as Robert the Bruce destroys the visible evidence of the Comyns power in the north. A terrible example is made of this district, the people who supported the Comyn family and the people sympathetic to King John. Those who can seek new patrons or flee. (1-page 74-76)

•     July 1308 AD                     King Robert the Bruce captures Aberdeen

•     1308-14 AD?                      Sir Gilbert Hay is granted the Comyn castle at Slains on the coast of Buchan and is made High Constable of Scotland. (12-page 206)

Battle of Rosslyn

•     June 24, 1314 AD             Bannockburn: Robert the Bruce defeated Edward I giving Scotland its independence. Henry St. Clair and Gilbert de la Hay fight on his side in the battle. (2 page 59-67)

•     1314 AD                              The Clan Hay records indicate their original lands were in Perthshire and Midlothan. It was only after Bannockburn (1314 AD) they were given Comyn lands in Aberdeenshire including Slains in Aberdeenshire. Sir Gilbert de la Hay was named the first High Constable of Scotland in recognition for that service.

•     April 6, 1320 AD             Magnus V signed the Scottish Declaration of Independence at Arbroath with Henry St. Clair, Gilbert de la Hay and others.

•     1331 AD                             Earls of Stratherne replace the Earls of Angus as the Earls of Orkney. (11-page 24)

•     November 24, 1331 AD         David II (aged 7) crowned at Scone. He reins 1329-71.

•     1333-1345 AD               Malise II, father in law of William Sinclair ruled Orkney and Cathiness.

•     July 19, 1333 AD          Halidon Hill (near Berwick): Sir Arcibald Douglas tried to relieve Berwick, but lost to Edward III of England at Halidon Hill. (2 page 69-72)

•     November, 1335 AD           (A) Culblean: King David II defeated David of Strathbogie and followers of the Earl of Athol. (1 page 78-88)

•     1341 AD In 1341-1346         David II, son of Robert the Bruce, granted William Lesk a Charter of Confirmation of the lands of Leaskgoroune in Aberdeenshire. (William is believed to be the first Clan Chief of the Leasks in Slains Parish, Aberdeen.) (g,h)

•     October 13, 1346 AD           Neville’s Cross Junction: King David II was defeated and captured by an English army led by the Archbishop of York. (2 page 73-80)

•     1357 AD                           King David II is released by the English and restored as King (2)

•     February 23, 1371 AD        King David II dies suddenly on the eve of his wedding to Agnes Dunbar, sister of the Earl of March51


  1. February 5, 1284-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 105. 

  2. 1284-1328-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 70. 

  3. March 19, 1286-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 106. 

  4. March 19, 1286-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 70. 

  5. September 1286 AD-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 97-98. 

  6. 1286-1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 96-99. 

  7. July 10, 1289-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 103. 

  8. July 10, 1289-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 108. 

  9. February 20, 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 104. 

  10. July 18, 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 104. 

  11. July 18, 1290-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 111. 

  12. August 8, 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 108. 

  13. September 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 108, 103-104. 

  14. October 6, 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 108. 

  15. November 6, 1290-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 109. 

  16. Winter 1290-1291-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 100. 

  17. June 1291-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 111. 

  18. June 11, 1291-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 112. 

  19. June 12, 1291-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 111. 

  20. June 13, 1291-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 112. 

  21. November 7,9, 1292-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 122. 

  22. November 17,1292-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 117. 

  23. November 17, 1292-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 122. 

  24. December 26, 1292-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 129. 

  25. January 6, 1293-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 133. 

  26. 1294-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 138. 

  27. 1294-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 139. 

  28. 1294-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 139. 

  29. 1295-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 139. 

  30. July 5, 1295-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 139. 

  31. 1295-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 139. 

  32. 1295-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 140. 

  33. Autumn 1295, 1289-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 123, 141. 

  34. October 1995-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 141. 

  35. March 24, 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 158. 

  36. March 26, 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 142,143. 

  37. March 30, 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 157. 

  38. April 5, 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 142. 

  39. April 27, 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 157. 

  40. July 8, 1296-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, pages 121, 157. 

  41. July and August 1296-Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 161. 

  42. August 8, 1296-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 123. 

  43. July 1297-<i>Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314</i>, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, pages 164, 165. 

  44. 1297 to 1304-<i>Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212-1314</i>, Alan Young, Tuckwell Press, 1997, page 190. 

  45. May 1301-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 148. 

  46. February 1302-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 149. 

  47. May 1303-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 149. 

  48. May 1303-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 150. 

  49. February 9, 1304-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 150. 

  50. March 26, 1306-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 167. 

  51. February 23, 1371-Scotland, The Story of a Nation, ©Magnus Magnusson, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, page 208.